If I have a uniformly distributed random number N from 0 to 2^62-1, but is converted to double R=N/(2^62), and don't have access to the original N. Now I want a uniformly distributed random number from 0 to 2^52-1, so I use M=(long)(R*(1^52)). Ideally if the original N happens once for each number from 0 to 2^62-1, I should get M happens 1024 times for each number from 0 to 2^52-1. Unfortunately, double has only 53 bits of precision, and some largest N will convert to exactly R=1. This will cause the odd distribution of M that most numbers from 0 to 2^52-1 appear 1024 times each, but a small number of them (must be 256) appear 1023 times each, and the number 2^52 happens 256 times (due to R=1). I don't want M=2^52 at all. If I use M=(long)(R*(2^52-1)), I will get M distributed from 1 to 2^52-1, but 2^52-1 will appear only 256 times, while rest of the numbers will appear 1023, 1024, or 1025 times. Is there any way given R to get uniformly distributed integers from 1 to 2^52-1?

Well, you could get a uniformly-distributed integer from 0 to 2^52-1 by taking each of the 52 binary digits as a Bernoulli trial (each one being 0 or 1 with equal probability).

However, that's crazy. Why don't you just use the uniform_int_distribution tools in <random>?

Alternatively, if you do have a random number uniform on 0 to 2^62-1 then just take the lowest 52 bits of it (e.g. by using %).

However, that's crazy. Why don't you just use the uniform_int_distribution tools in <random>?

Alternatively, if you do have a random number uniform on 0 to 2^62-1 then just take the lowest 52 bits of it (e.g. by using %).

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If you do not have access to the original N then you are SOL. Sorry.

The problem is that IEEE numbers are not uniformly encoded, and that conversion step, outside your control, introduces a bias that you cannot fix with a simple equation. You need to have a special function that "undoes" the conversion by mapping the normalized IEEE value back into a uniform range.

I am certain that code exists to do this, but it has been ages since I have seen it and couldn't even guess a good google search for that kind of thing these days.

Remember that not all processors use IEEE floating point types, which must be a consideration you need to have as well.

Sorry again. Here be worms and dragons.

The problem is that IEEE numbers are not uniformly encoded, and that conversion step, outside your control, introduces a bias that you cannot fix with a simple equation. You need to have a special function that "undoes" the conversion by mapping the normalized IEEE value back into a uniform range.

I am certain that code exists to do this, but it has been ages since I have seen it and couldn't even guess a good google search for that kind of thing these days.

Remember that not all processors use IEEE floating point types, which must be a consideration you need to have as well.

Sorry again. Here be worms and dragons.

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