Is the thread library dealing with threading, which is not parallel programming?
My understanding is that threading and parallel programming are different things.
Anyway, I will buy the book you recommended. It seems a good one.
threading is parallel computing on your local machine if your local machine has more than one cpu, which it does if it not extremely old.
Its slightly different to talk about parallel computing on a supercomputer or cluster of computers than just straight up threading, but those differences are mechanical (what library you call, how you set up the environments, etc). The concepts can all be seen with just threading, at least the vast majority of them can be.
OP: if you haven't come across it already I'd recommend checking out "The C++ Standard Libary (2nd ed): Nicolai Josuttis". It has about 75 pages on concurrency and the rest of the book is also great, particularly re post C++11 material
Regarding the point about parallel programming vs threading - yes, point taken. If you do mean parallelising code across multiple nodes that are part of a cluster then I know that OpenMP is utilised in production code (see https://people.sc.fsu.edu/~jburkardt/cpp_src/openmp/openmp.html), although not aware if there are any goto books on the subject. Given the maturity of OpenMP, perhaps the OpenMP documentation is sufficient for your purposes. I'd certainly give that a try before spending too much.